Impact of diseases on fish production of baors in Jessore, Bangladesh - Journal of Fisheries

Journal of Fisheries
Volume 2 Issue 1 April 2014
Pages: 70-75

Impact of diseases on fish production of baors in Jessore, Bangladesh

Bipul Kumar Dey • Md. Mer Mosharraf Hossain • Sanjoy Banerjee Bappa • Shirin Akter • Shoumo Khondoker

Department of Fisheries and Marine Bioscience, Jessore University of Science and Technology, Jessore-7408, Bangladesh

Article type: Original article

DOI: dx.doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v2i1.2014.11

Manuscript history

  • Received on 07 Jan 2014
  • Received in revised form on 14 Apr 2014
  • Accepted on 22 Apr 2014
  • Published online on 24 Apr 2014

Correspondance
Bipul Kumar Dey
Department of Fisheries and Marine Bioscience, Jessore University of Science and Technology
Email: bipulkumar.jstu@gmail.com

Citation
Dey BK, Hossain MMM, Bappa SB, Akter S and Khondoker S (2014) Impact of diseases on fish production of baors in Jessore, Bangladesh. Journal of Fisheries 2(1): 70-75. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v2i1.2014.11

   
Table of contents
  > Abstract
> Introduction
> Methodology
> Results
> Discussion
> References
   
Abstract
The study was carried out to assess the impact of diseases on fish production in baors of Jessore district, Bangladesh from March 2012 to January 2013. Studied baors were selected randomly from each sub-district which covered 39.22% of total baors and 71.87% baor areas in Jessore district. All the surveyed baors were affected more or less by various diseases and in 80% baors noticeable production loss occurred almost every year. The main diseases were epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), dropsy, gill rot and fin rot; out breaking time ranged from November to February each year. EUS was recorded in 85% baors whereas other diseases were found in various baors at various percentages: dropsy (75%), gill rot (45%) and fin rot (55%). Conferring to the number of affected fishes, 31.25% were affected by EUS, 37.5% by dropsy, 12.5% by gill rot and 18.75% by fin rot. In the year 2012, 0.513% loss of production has occurred that designated 0.7599 million BDT. Through successful work on disease control and management, production loss may be minimized.
   
Keywords
Impact, fish diseases, production, baor, oxbow lake
 
[Top] [Table of contents]
Introduction

Bangladesh has achieved remarkable progress in the fisheries sector since its independence in 1971 and this sector have been playing a very significant role and deserve potential for future development in the agrarian economy of Bangladesh (DoF 2012). The sector's contribution to the national economy is much higher than its 4.39% share in GDP, as it provides about 60% of the animal protein intake and more than 11% of the total population of the country is directly or indirectly involved in this sector for their livelihoods (DoF 2012). The increasing rate of exporting of fish and fishery products was 45.54% from the fiscal year 2009-2010 to 2010-2011. In recent years, this sector performs the highest GDP growth rate in comparison to other agricultural sectors (crop, livestock and forestry) (DoF 2012). The growth rate of this sector over the last 10 years is almost steady and encouraging, varying from 4.76% to 7.32% with an average 5.61%. Whereas last four years average growth rate of this sector is 6.22%. The country's export earnings from this sector were 2.46% during the fiscal year 2011-12 (DoF 2012).

Bangladesh is one of the world's leading fish producing countries and it’s total fish production shows a consistently increasing trend from the fiscal year 1983-1984 to 2011-2012 and the production increased more than four times (754,000 MT in 1983-1984 to 3,262,000 MT in 2011-12) (DoF 2013). The diversified fisheries resources of the country are divided into three groups, i.e., inland capture, inland culture and marine capture. Inland culture includes mainly pond/ditch, baor (oxbow lake), shrimp/prawn farm, seasonal cultured water body etc. covering an area of about 774,055 ha and produces 1,726,067 MT fish and shrimp that covers 52.92% of total production during the fiscal year 2011-2012 (DoF 2013). There are about six hundred oxbow lakes in four greater districts of Jessore, Faridpur, Khulna and Kushtia having many of these concentrations in greater Jessore district (Hasan 2003, Biswas et al. 2009 and Abdullah-Bin-Farid et al. 2013). Total 51 baors are situated in Jessore region (Personal communication: Mr. Haridash, Statistics Officer, DoF, Jessore). Total area of baors in Jessore region is 1,882 ha (DoF 2011). Though the inland closed water area is only 16.47% of the total inland water-bodies, but 52.92% of the total yield comes from this inland closed water area (DoF 2013).

Fishery is the second export earning sector which contributes about 4.43% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and it contributes 22.21% in agriculture 2.73% of total foreign exchange income comes from Fisheries sub sector (DoF 2012). Disease is one of the major limiting factors to obtain the production target and among various diseases bacterial disease in fish is a serious threat to aquaculture system in Bangladesh. Fish farmers have been facing great problems due to fish diseases that cause severe damages and mortality in both culture and wild fishes (Rahman and Chowdhury 1996). Various types of diseases such as ulcer type disease including epizootic ulcerative syndrome, bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia, tail rot and fin rot, bacterial gill rot, dropsy, columnar disease, fungal disease and parasitic disease are important limiting factors for sustainable fish production (Chowdhury 1997). The major fish diseases occurred in Bangladesh are epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), different types of fungal and parasitic diseases etc. (Chowdhury et al. 2003). Moreover, Tail rot and Fin rot disease is also found in different fish farms and the rate of incidence of this type of disease is assumed to be increased in the recent years (Faruk et al. 2004).

Bangladesh has many baors and Jessore district possesses a great portion of baor area but no remarkable work was conducted on fish diseases in baors. So, in the present study, impact of fish diseases on fish production of baors in Jessore district was investigated.
[Top] [Table of contents]
Methodology

Study area and duration: The study was conducted in various baors of Jessore district, situated in the south-west part of Bangladesh (Figure 1). The total area of sample baors is 1352.63 ha which covers 71.87% of total area of baors in Jessore and the duration of the study was March 2012 to January 2013.

Figure 1: Map of Bangladesh indicating the study area
Figure 1:
Map of Bangladesh indicating the study area

Sampling framework: Sample baors were selected randomly ensuring the inclusion of each Upazila (sub-district, 7 in number). Bangladesh has 5,488 ha baor area and in Jessore district the total area of baors is 1,882 hectors and thus the Jessore district contains 34.29% baor area of Bangladesh. Twenty baors (Table 1) were selected and primary data were collected employing effective techniques such as personal interview (home visit), focus group discussion (FGD), and telephonic interview.

All the studied baors were managed under community based fisheries management approach. A total of 144 farmers and concerned members were interviewed for primary data collection. Fish production, investment and income data were collected from the respondents during interview.

Table 1: Surveyed baors and their areas
Table 1: Surveyed baors and their areas

Common fishes of those baors were Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, L. calbasu, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Puntius spp., Colisa fasciatus, Channa punctata, C. striatus, Salmostorma bacaila, Amblypharyngodon mola, Mystus tengra, Notopterus notopterus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, Glossogobius giuris, Wallago attu and Chanda ranga. The main diseases were EUS, dropsy, gill rot and fin rot which were identified in relation to identifying keys (Table 2). Secondary data were collected from various government and fisheries correlated institutions and also collected from websites and published literatures.

Table 2: Identifying keys for various diseases
Table 2: Identifying keys for various diseases

The following equations were used for estimation of production loss, the percentage of disease affection and are average production loss are as follows:

Data analysis: The collected data were subjected to descriptive analyses using the computer software Microsoft Excel version 2007.

[Top] [Table of contents]
Results
 

Total fish production, total cost and total income from the studied baors are presented in Table 3. Total income was increased in maximum cases between the year of 2007 and 2012. Total cost was also increased this time with some rare exceptions (Table 3).

Table 3: Total fish production, total cost and total income from the studied baors
Table 3: Total fish production, total cost and total income from the studied baors

No specific treatment was used in these baors for specific fish disease and liming is the only one treatment in every type of diseases in some baors (Table 4). In 50% baors lime is used without calculation of the required dose. The highest average loss from the year 2007 to 2012 has occurred in Manikdaha Baor (1.446%) and the lowest in Koikhali Baor (0.428%) (Table 4). Carps and other native species were found to be affected by disease in all the baors except Zhapa Baor where only snakeheads (Channa sp.) were affected. The most violent disease was dropsy (37.5%), covered the greatest portion in pie chart and then EUS (31.25%) followed by fin rot (18.75%) and gill rot (12.5%) in fishes (Figure 2). Because of those diseases some loss has occurred in almost every year (Table 4). In 80% baors mortality was found noticeable (Table 4). In 50% baors lime was used as control measure of the diseases and potash (KMnO4) was applied in only one baor (Table 4).

Table 4: Disease status in studied baors
Table 4: Disease status in studied baors

Figure 2: Various fish diseases recorded in baors
Figure 2:
Various fish diseases recorded in baors

Due to mortality for diseases total loss of production of fishes in plotted baors was 0.513% in weight (Table 5) and that referred 0.7599 million BDT on the aspect of the year 2012.

Table 5: Fish production and percentage of fish loss in 2012
Table 5: Fish production and percentage of fish loss in 2012

[Top] [Table of contents]
Discussion
 

In present study, surveyed baors were stocked with Indian major carps and some exotic carp species. EUS, dropsy, gill rot and fin rot were the common diseases. Because of these diseases some lose has occurred due to death of fish in baors. Similar findings was also reported by Frerichs and Roberts (1989), they have mentioned that tail rot and fin rot diseases are widely distributed in tropical as well as temperate countries and most species of fish are susceptible to these diseases. The major fish diseases occurred in Bangladesh are EUS, Aeromonas septicemia, different types of fungal and parasitic diseases etc. affording to Chowdhury et al. (2003).

In this study, in all studied baors, time of disease outbreak ranges from November to February (4 months) and during this period mortality of fishes has been reported in many  baors. During December 1992 to February 1993 EUS was found in Puntius sp. and another carp in Karnataka, India (Karunasagar et al. 1995). Various diseases of fish were also recorded in Indian major carps in the months November to December in Mymensingh, Bangladesh (Baqui 1995). Necrosis, inflammation, hemorrhage, hypertrophy, hyperplasia missing of primary secondary gill lamellae were found within the months of December and January in Anabas testudineus that was recounted by Ahmed et al. (2007). So, it can be said that fishes are susceptible to various diseases among the months of November to February.

This was estimated that 31.25% fishes were affected by EUS, 18.75% by fin rot, 12.5% by gill rot and 37.5% by dropsy and totally 0.513% production loss has occurred during the year of 2012. Most species of fish are susceptible to tail rot and fin rot diseases and those may cause large mortality that was stated by Frerichs and Roberts (1989). Tail rot and fin rot diseases also reported in C. catla and A. testudineus in some fish farms of Bangladesh and the affected fishes showed lesion and erosion on the tail and fins and approximately 40% mortality was recorded in those farms (Foysal 2010).

Among the studied baors, the fish production and income are increased with the increasing cost and/or investment except some exceptions; some losses were occurred between 2007 and 2012.Four diseases were responsible for the loss of 0.513% of total fish production in the year of 2012. In 50% disease affected baors lime was used which was not sufficient to control the diseases.

Further study on fish diseases to find out their causes and pathogens are recommended. An adaptable treatment process should be developed and recommended to the farmers so that loss of fish production due to fish diseases could be reduced.
[Top] [Table of contents]
References
 

Abdullah-Bin-Farid BMS, Mondal S, Satu KA, Adhikary RK and Saha D (2013) Management and socio-economic conditions of fishermen of the Baluhar Baor, Jhenaidah, Bangladesh. Journal of Fisheries 1(1): 30-36.

Ahmed GU, Dhar M, Khan MNA and Choi J (2007) Investigation of diseases of Thai koi, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) from farming conditions in winter. Korean Journal of Life Science 17(10): 1309-1314.

Baqui MA (1995) Investigation of bacterial flora in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita under farmed condition. M.S. Thesis, Department of Fisheries Biology and Limnology, Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, 125 pp.

Biswas MMR, Islam MF, Rahman MM, Kawsar MA and Barman SK (2009) Fisheries management scenarios of two baors in the district of Chuadanga, Bangladesh. Journal of Innovation and Development Strategy 3(5): 11-15.

Chowdhury MBR (1997) Bacterial involvement in fish diseases in Bangladesh. Presented at the International Symposium on Disease in Aquaculture, October 3-6, 1997. Hiroshima, Japan.  Abstract III-2: 24.

Chowdhury MBR, Muniruzzaman M, Zahura UA, Habib KZA and Khatun MD (2003) Ulcer type of disease in the fishes of small-scale farmer`s pond in Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 6: 544-550.

DoF (2011) Yearly report, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fish and Livestock, December, 2011. 09 pp.

DoF (2012) Fish and Livestock News (monthly), Ministry of Fish and Livestock, Registration No. 965, No. 11, January, 2012.

DoF (2013) National Fish Week 2013 Compendium (In Bengali). Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Bangladesh, 144 pp.

Frerichs GN and Roberts RJ (1989) The Bacteriology of Teleost. In: Fish Pathology, Roberts RJ (Ed.). Bailliere, Tindal, London, pp. 289-29. F.R.I (Fisheries Research Institute, 1993).

Faruk MAR, Alam MJ, Sarker MMR and Kabir MB (2004) Status of fish disease and health management practices in rural freshwater aquaculture of Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 7: 2092-2098.

Foysal MJ (2010) Tail and fin rot disease of Indian major carp and climbing perch in Bangladesh. Journal of Biological Sciences 10: 800-804.

Hasan MR (2003) Fisheries management of oxbow lakes in the Gangetic floodplains of Bangladesh. Thematic review presented at basin level consultation on research priorities in aquatic ecosystems and fisheries organized by the challenge program on water and food, WorldFish Center, 21-22 December 2003, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Karunasagar I, Sugumar G and Karunasagar I (1995) Virulence characters of Aeromonas Spp. isolated from EUS affected fish. In: Disease in Asian Aquaculture II. Shariff M, Arthur JR and Subasinghe RP (eds). Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, pp. 307-314.

Rahman MM and Chowdhury MBR (1996) Isolation of bacterial pathogen causing an ulcer disease in farmed carp fishes of Mymensingh. Bangladesh Journal of Fisheries 19: 103-110.
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