Lengths, length-length relationships and condition factor of Indian catfish Gagata cenia (Hamilton, 1822) in the Padma River, Bangladesh - Journal of Fisheries

Journal of Fisheries
Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2013
Pages: 22-29

Lengths, length-length relationships and condition factor of Indian catfish Gagata cenia (Hamilton, 1822) in the Padma River, Bangladesh

Nipa Chaki • Md. Abdur Razzaq Joadder • Md. Foyzul Hassan Fahad

Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh

Article type: Original article

DOI: dx.doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v1i1.2013.6

Manuscript history

  • Received on 08 Aug 2013
  • Received in revised form on 18 Dec 2013
  • Accepted on 19 Dec 2013
  • Published online on 20 Dec 2013

Correspondance
Nipa Chaki
Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Rajshahi
Email: aappuni@gmail.com

Citation
Chaki N, Joadder MAR and Fahad MFH (2013) Lengths, length-length relationships and condition factor of Indian catfish Gagata cenia (Hamilton, 1822) in the Padma River, Bangladesh. Journal of Fisheries 1(1): 22-29. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v1i1.2013.6

   
Table of contents
  > Abstract
> Introduction
> Methodology
> Results and Discussion
> Conclusion
> References
   
Abstract
This study described some biological parameters including lengths, length-length relationships and Fulton’s condition factors of Gagata cenia in the Padma River of Bangladesh, based on 1120 specimens collected from May to November, 2012. Maximum 39.78% female fishes were belonging to the length category of 55-60 mm whereas 51.06% male were belonging to 50-55 mm.The highest mean total lengths were found 66.51±10.28 mm (combined sex), 70.12±09.49 mm (female) and 61.08±09.45 mm (male) in the month of June. Similar findings are also presented for standard length, fork length, body depth, dorsal length, pectoral length, pelvic length and anal length. Linear relationships were also studied among mentioned lengths. Strong positive correlations were observed in all cases. Speraman’s Rank test indicated that there was a strong, positive correlation between total length and condition factor in female, which was statistically significant (rs=0.210, P=0.044). In male, there was no significant correlation between these two (rs=0.167, P=0.262). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that the female individuals had the highest condition factor (Mean rank of 79.76). There was a statistically significant differences in the Fulton’s condition factor between males and females (two tailed, Mann-Whitney U = 1324).
   
Keywords
Gagata cenia, Padma River, length-length relationship, condition factor
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Introduction

Gagata cenia (Hamilton 1822) is a small indigenous fish species in Bangladesh, considered a wholesome food fish (Talwar and Jhingran 1991). In Bangladesh, the contribution of inland capture fisheries to the total fish production has been declined in recent times, which contributed 41.83% in 1998-99 (FRSS 2009) and 29.34% in 2009-10 (DoF 2013). Moreover, at present, our indigenous fish species are at stake due to various reasons both man-made and natural causes (Thompson et al. 1999, Mijkherjee et al. 2002, Amin et al. 2009, Flowra et al. 2009, Galib et al. 2009). Already a total of 54 freshwater fish species of country have been declared threatened by IUCN Bangladesh (2000). However this already became an antiquated effort and there is a need for updated research which will reveal present status of fish species.

G. cenia is not a common species in water bodies of Bangladesh. This species is also found in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Myanmar; it inhibits both freshwater and tidal rivers (Talwar and Jhingran 1991). Amount of catch of this fish is not much in water bodies of Bangladesh (Samad et al. 2010, Galib et al. 2013). Also G. cenia is not focused much to the scientists and researchers of Bangladesh and other countries of the world. For this purpose research work is needed for collecting necessary information about this fish and its present status for better management.

The condition factor of fishes is the most important biological parameter which provides information on condition of fish species and the entire community and is of high significance for management and conservation of natural populations (Sarkar et al. 2009, Muchlisin et al. 2010). It is also a quantitative parameter of the state of well-being of the fish that determines present and future population success because of its influence on growth, reproduction and survival (Richter 2007).

This study would provide basic information on the lengths, length-length relationships (LLRs), and condition factor of G. cenia that would be useful for fishery biologists or managers to impose adequate regulations for sustainable fishery management in the Padma River and nearby areas of Bangladesh.

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Methodology

Sampling area and duration: Samplings were conducted in the Padma River at the Rajshahi City Corporation area (Latitude 24° 22' North; Longitude 88° 35' East) (Figure 1). Fish specimenswere collected for seven months from May 2012 to November, 2012.

Figure 1: Map of Rajshahi district showing the study area, the Padma River (blue colored)
Figure 1:
Map of Rajshahi district showing the study area, the Padma River (blue colored)

Sampling framework and measurements: A total of one hundred and sixty (160) specimens were collected every month for study. Fish specimens were collected with the help of fishermen who used their own fishing nets, traps and craft for capturing this fish. Collected specimens were preserved in 10% buffered formalin solution. After collection they were brought to the laboratory of the Department of Fisheries, University of Rajshahi and preserved in labeled plasticfor further study.

Total length (TL), standard length (SL), fork length (FL), dorsal length (DL), pectoral length (P1L), pelvic length (P2L) and anal length (AL) of the collected specimens were measured. All the measurements were taken by digital slide calipers.

Study of length-length relationships: Following relationships were studied: TL vs. SL, TL vs. FL, SL vs. FL, TL vs. DL, TL vs. P1L, TL vs. T2L, TL vs. AL by linear regressions for males, females, and combined sexes separately. The relationships among all body parameters were calculated by least square method to fit a simple linear regression as:

Y = a+bX

Where
Y = various body lengths,
X=total length,
a = Proportionality constant, and
b = Regression coefficient

Condition factor: The Fulton’s condition factor (K) was calculated using the following equation,

K =100× (W/L3) (Htun-Han 1978)

Where W is the body weight (BW) in g, and L, the standard length (SL) in cm.

Statistical analyses: Statistical analyses were done using computer software Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 15.00 and Microsoft Excel 2007.
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Results and Discussion
 

Size-frequency distribution

In case of female specimens, maximum 39.78% fishes were belonging to the length category of 55-60 mm followed by 50-55 mm (23.66%), 60-65 mm (17.20%) and so on (Figure 2). In males, majority 51.06% fishes were belonging to the length category of 50-55 mm (Figure 3).

Figure 2: Frequency distribution of female fishes according to their total length
Figure 2:
Frequency distribution of female fishes according to their total length

Figure 3: Frequency distribution of male fishes according to their total length
Figure 3:
Frequency distribution of male fishes according to their total length

There was no previous study found on lengths of G. cenia that is why it is not possible to compare present findings with the previous one. However, it is established that morphometric studies are essential for the determination of growth form and growth rate of a species (Alam et al. 2012). So the present findings would help biologist in this regard.

Lengths analyses

Total length: In case of combined sexes, the highest TL (66.51±10.28 mm) was found in the June whereas the lowest mean TL (54.99±02.96 mm) was in September (Table 1). The highest TL for male was recorded 61.08±09.45 mm in the month of June whereas the lowest (52.71±02.68 mm) was recorded in September. On the other hand the highest TL for female was found as 70.12±09.49 mm (June) and the lowest TL (56.03±03.23 mm) was found in October (Table 1).

Table 1: Analyses regarding total length of Gagata cenia
Table 1: Analyses regarding total length of Gagata cenia

Standard length: The highest SL of combined specimens was found 51.16±07.97 mm in June with the lowest (43.83±05.99 mm) in the month of September (Table 2). In female, the highest SL was found 55.02±06.55 mm in the month of May and the lowest value of standard length (44.57±02.87 mm) was recorded in the month of October (Table 2). In males, the highest SL was found 46.81±07.68 mm in the month of June and the lowest value of SL (40.06±03.43 mm) was found in October (Table 2).

Table 2: Analyses regarding standard length of Gagata cenia
Table 2: Analyses regarding standard length of Gagata cenia

Fork length: In case of combined sexes, the highest FL was found in June, 55.27±08.96 mm with the lowest (46.67±02.80 mm) inSeptember (Table 3). In female, the highest FL was found 59.66±07.25 mm in the month of May and the lowest value of FL (47.44±03.17 mm) was found in October (Table 3). In males, the highest FL was found 49.94±08.12 mm in the month of June and the lowest value of FL (44.56±02.67 mm) was recorded in the month of September (Table 3).

Table 3: Analyses regarding fork length of Gagata cenia
Table 3: Analyses regarding fork length of Gagata cenia

Dorsal length: In combined sexes, the highest DL 21.21±3.09 mm was found in the month of June whereas the lowest mean DL (15.92±1.44 mm) was recorded in the month of August (Table 4). In female, the highest DL was found 22.79±3.13 mm in the month of May and the lowest value of DL (16.17±1.49 mm) was recorded in the month of August (Table 4). In males, the highest DL was found 19.22±2.73 mm in the month of July and the lowest value of DL (15.16±1.04 mm) was recorded in the month of August (Table 4).

Table 4: Analyses regarding dorsal length of Gagata cenia
Table 4: Analyses regarding dorsal length of Gagata cenia

Pectoral length: The highest P1L (13.88±2.22 mm) of combined sexes was found in the month of June whereas the lowest mean P1L (10.67±0.51 mm) was recorded in the month of October (Table 5). In female, the highest P1L was found 14.79±1.96 mm in the month of June and the lowest value of P1L (10.74±0.54 mm) was recorded in the month of October (Table 5). In males, the highest P1L was found 12.51±1.96 mm in the month of June and the lowest value of P1L (10.32±0.69 mm) was recorded in the month of September (Table 5).

Table 5: Analyses regarding pectoral length of Gagata cenia
Table 5: Analyses regarding pectoral length of Gagata cenia

Pelvic length: The highest P2L (28.20±3.82 mm) of combined sexes was found in the month of June whereas the lowest mean P2L (22.56±1.25 mm) was recorded in September (Table 6). In female, the highest P2L was found 30.44±3.39 mm (May) and the lowest P2L (23.14±0.84 mm) was recorded in September. In males, the highest P2L(25.70±3.27 mm) was in June and the lowest value of P2L (21.48±1.21 mm) was in September (Table 6).

Table 6: Analyses regarding pelvic length of Gagata cenia
Table 6: Analyses regarding pelvic length of Gagata cenia

Anal length: In case of combined sexes, the highest AL 39.94±6.07 mm was found in July whereas the lowest mean AL (32.67±1.58 mm) was recorded in September (Table 7). In female, the highest AL was found 42.41±5.56 mm in June and the lowest value of AL (33.34±1.17 mm) was recorded in September. In males, the highest AL was found 36.25±5.03 mm June and the lowest value of AL (31.43±1.55 mm) was recorded in September (Table 7).

Table 7: Analyses regarding anal length of Gagata cenia
Table 7: Analyses regarding anal length of Gagata cenia

No previous data on specific lengths i.e.those revealed in the present study, of G. cenia were found so that present findings are not comparable. Though Bhuiyan (1964) and Rahman (1989 and 2005), Talwar and Jhingran (1991) and Raknuzzaman (2007) described this species in their books but those descriptions lack measurements considered in this study. However, the maximum TL described by Rahman (1989 and 2005) 96 mm which is higher than that of the highest TL recorded in the present study (90.66 cm) which was a female species captured in the month of May. SL mentioned (150 mm) by Talwar and Jhingran (1991) is more than concerned length. However, this was also observed that length of female specimenwas more than that of male in all the month which indicates that female grow more than male.

Length-length relationships: Sex-based relationships among various lengths of G. cenia are shown in table 8. Almost all the LLR equations clearly revealed that the lengths of the body parts proportional to the TL.

Table 8: Various length-length relationships of Gagata cenia
Table 8: Various length-length relationships of Gagata cenia

No comparison was possible because of absence of previous research findings on G. cenia in Bangladesh, most probably outside Bangladesh too. However, Alam et al. (2012) stated similar results while working with pool barb, Puntius sophore, collected from the Padma River; the same river from where the specimens have been collected in the present study. These findings also reported by Tandon et al. (1993) based on freshwater fish, Cirrhinus reba.

The findings of present investigation are similar to the findings of Bhuiyan and Biswas (1982), Hoque and Hossain (1992), Sinovćić (2004), Hossain et al. (2006) and Dadzie et al. (2008); their findings were based on Puntius chola, Mystus vittatus, Engraulis encrasicolus, M. vittatus and Parastromateus niger respectively.

Condition factors

In case of combined sexes, the highest condition factor (2.01±0.26) was recorded in the month of June and the lowest condition factor (1.62±0.28) was recorded in the month of November (Table 9). In female specimens, the highest condition factor (1.99±0.24) was recorded in the month of May and June and the lowest condition factor (1.68±2.29) was recorded in the month of November (Table 9). In male specimens, the highest condition factor (2.04±0.30) was recorded in the month of June and the lowest condition factor (1.52±0.23) was recorded in the month of November (Table 9).

Table 9: Fulton’s condition factor of Gagata cenia
Table 9: Fulton’s condition factor of Gagata cenia

There was a strong, positive correlation between TL and K, which was statistically significant (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, rs = 0.210, P = 0.044) (two tailed, p<0.005).  While in case of male, there was no significant correlation between TL and K was found (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, rs = 0.167, P = 0.262). In case of combined sexes, there was a strong, positive correlation between TL and K, which was statistically significant (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, rs = 0.228, P = 0.007) (two tailed, p<0.001). The Mann-Whitney U-testshowed that the female individuals had the highest condition factor (Mean rank is 79.76). There was a statistically significant differences in the Fulton’s condition factor between males and females (Two tailed, Mann-Whitney U = 1324). Condition factor is a quantitative parameter associated with determination of present and future population success through its influence on biology (growth, reproduction and survival) of an animal (Hile 1936, Hossain et al. 2006, Tareque et al. 2009). Recent physical and biological circumstances reflect the condition of a fish, and this condition fluctuates by interaction among feeding conditions, parasitic infections and physiological factors (Le Cren 1951).

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Conclusion
 

Though the amount of catch of G. cenia is not much in water bodies of Bangladesh but it is important from the point of view of biological conservation.The present research findings would help to update and enhance the existing morphological measurements of G. cenia in both Bangladesh and outside the country. Condition factors would allow biologist to understand its population status and future success. Further in depth research efforts on other aspects of G. cenia, which are not included in present study, are recommended.

 
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References
 

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