Fry production, induced breeding practices and cost-profit analysis of the hatcheries of Rajshahi district in Bangladesh - Journal of Fisheries

Journal of Fisheries
Volume 2 Issue 3 December 2014
Pages: 209-214

Fry production, induced breeding practices and cost-profit analysis of the hatcheries of Rajshahi district in Bangladesh

Naima Aktar • Abdus Salam Bhuiyan • M Nazrul Islam

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life and Earth Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh

Article type: Original article

DOI: dx.doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v2i3.2014.61

Manuscript history

  • Received on 13 Oct 2014
  • Received in revised form on 14 Dec 2014
  • Accepted on 29 Dec 2014
  • Published online on 31 Dec 2014

Correspondance
Naima Aktar
Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi
Email: naimaru85@gmail.com

Citation
Aktar N, Bhuiyan AS and Islam MN (2014) Fry production, induced breeding practices and cost-profit analysis of the hatcheries of Rajshahi district in Bangladesh. Journal of Fisheries 2(3): 209-214. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v2i3.2014.61

   
Table of contents
  > Abstract
> Introduction
> Methodology
> Results and Discussion
> Conclusion
> Acknowledgements
>
References
   
Abstract
This study was conducted on the 13 hatcheries of Rajshahi district from March to December 2013 to know about the fry production status, induced breeding practices and cost-profit status. Average fry production of Labeo rohita, 93.38±83.32 kg, Catla catla, 62.00±60.84 kg, Cirrhinus cirrhosus, 77.46±58.61 kg, L. calbasu, 14.20±14.60 kg, L. bata, 53.73±50.56 kg, L. gonia, 10.00±0 kg, Heteropneustes fossilis, 5.00±0 kg, Clarias batrachus, 20.00±0 kg, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, 149.77±138.45 kg, Aristichthys nobilis, 104.54±148.11 kg, Ctenopharyngodon idella, 19.20±15.35 kg, Cyprinus carpio 108.08±77.39 kg and Barbonymus gonionotus, 23.10±14.04 kg were recorded in the surveyed hatcheries. Two types of hormone injections PG (pituitary gland) and HCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin) were used for induced breeding. The rate of 1st dose of injection of PG varied from 1 to 2 mg/kg and HCG from 100-150 IU/kg and the rate of 2nd dose of injection of PG varied between 5 and 8 mg/kg. The incubation period and hatching rate in different fish species varied from 10 to 72 hours and 55% to 80%, respectively. The average total cost, gross return and net profit of the hatcheries were 0.667±0.798, 1.152±1.636 and 0.485±0.846 million BDT respectively.
   
Keywords
Fish fry, hatchery, induced breeding, inducing agents, PG, HCG, brood fishes, hatching, cost-return-profit
 
[Top] [Table of contents]
Introduction

Bangladesh is an agro-based developing country having an extensive water resource. Fisheries is one of the major components of agricultural activities and play a very significant role and deserve potential for future development in the agrarian economy of Bangladesh in terms of animal protein supply, foreign currency earning, employment and poverty alleviation. In 2012-2013, fisheries sector contribute 4.37% to the national gross domestic product (GDP) and almost one-fourth (23.37%) to the agricultural GDP and 2.01% export earning and 60% of the total protein supply in the diet of the people of Bangladesh (DoF 2014). Bangladesh is one of the world’s leading fish producing countries with a total production of 3.410 million mt in the last fiscal year 2012-13 (DoF 2013). The availability of fish fry is an essential prerequisite for fish culture. The main sources of fish fry in Bangladesh are spawn produced in government and private hatcheries, and some collected from rivers. At present the total number of fish hatcheries are 936 of which government fish seed multiplication farms are 77, other government hatcheries are 7 and private fish hatcheries are 852 (DoF 2013). Rajshahi is one of the richest districts of Bangladesh in respect of its vast, diverse and unique fisheries resources in the form of physical, biological and others. There are 2 public and 11 private fish hatcheries in Rajshahi district (DoF 2013). In the year 2013, the total fry production from hatcheries in Bangladesh was 487,453 kg, of which 9,890 kg was from public hatcheries and 477,563 kg was from private hatcheries. The total fry production from govt. hatcheries was 390 kg and from private hatcheries it was 8,372 kg in the year 2013 from Rajshahi district (DoF 2013). Nowadays due to the degradation of ecological balance, natural resources of fish fry are destroyed. So, hatchery is now the main source of fish fry production. The term “hatchery” is considered in broadest sense as the facilities where fish fry and fingerlings suitable for stocking in growth ponds are produced in artificial manner by the process of induced breeding technique. Induced breeding is a technique whereby ripe brood fishes are stimulated by treating them with inducing agents to breed in captivity. The stimulation promotes a timely release of eggs and milts from ripe breeders. It is now used as a widely accepted means of artificial propagation to overcome constraints in fish fry supply particularly for species that do not breed in captivity.

In view of the economic importance and culture potentials of the fishes the study was done to find out the way to standardize the fish hatchery sector. This study will be helpful to the hatchery owners, fish culturists, farm managers, hatchery operators, production specialists, policy makers and extension workers to run a hatchery effectively and efficiently and as well as to improve the breed and stock, improve quality fish fry and increase the fry production rate.
[Top] [Table of contents]
Methodology

Study area and duration: This study deals with 13 hatcheries (Table 1) of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. The study was carried out over a period of 10 months from March to December 2013. Rajshahi district is situated in the southwestern part of Rajshahi division and lies between 24°6'N and 25°13'N latitudes and between 49°02' and 49°21'E longitudes (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Map of Rajshahi district showing the study areas.
Figure 1:
Map of Rajshahi district showing the study areas.

Data collection: For data collection, a reasonable size of sample was considered. A survey schedule was prepared and the data on fry production, induced breeding and cost profit were collected by survey and interview; other relevant data were collected from district and Upazila fishery offices. 

Data analysis: All the collected data were checked, summarized and scrutinized carefully and analyzed by MS Excel.

Table 1: Name and addresses of the hatcheries under study area in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh
Table 1: Name and addresses of the hatcheries under study area in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh
[Top] [Table of contents]
Results and Discussion
 

Fry production: Annual fry production capacity and species wise fry production of the surveyed hatcheries are shown in Table 2. From the investigational study, it was observed that fry production are not sufficient than production capacity. More or less similar observation was found in the study of Bhuiyan et al. (2011), Islam et al. (2002) and Hossain and Siddique (2009). The annual production capacity (kg) of the surveyed hatcheries ranged from minimum 115 to maximum 2,500 kg. The total production of fry were lowest 115 to highest 2,120 kg in the hatcheries under survey.

Table 2: Showing the annual production capacity, species wise fry production and total fry production in the surveyed hatcheries (in kg)
Table 2: Showing the annual production capacity, species wise fry production and total fry production in the surveyed hatcheries (in kg)

Fry of a total of 13 species were found to be produced in the surveyed hatcheries. Of these, induced breeding of six species, including three major carps (L. rohita, C. catla and C. cirrhosus) and three Chinese carps (H. molitrix, A. nobilis and C. carpio) was practiced in all the hatcheries. There were three species (L. gonia, H. fossilis and C. batrachus) whose artificial breeding was carried out only in a single hatchery during the period of study.

Maximum mean fry production was found for silver carp, H. molitrix which was 149.77±138.45 kg followed by common carps, C. carpio (108.08±77.39 kg) and bighead carp, A. nobilis (104.54±148.11 kg). The minimum seed production (5 kg) was recorded for stinging catfish, H. fossilis. Artificial breeding of L. gonia was also reported and the amount of production was 10 kg. However, small amount of seeds (20 kg) of another indigenous catfish species, C. batrachus was also produced.

Induced breeding: For producing quality fish fry, induced breeding techniques are applied in the hatcheries. Mainly two types of inducing agents viz. pituitary gland (PG) and the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were used for induced breeding practices in the surveyed hatcheries. PG was used for all fishes except the silver and bighead carps where HCG was used. For the 1st and 2nd doses, PG of 1 to 2 mg/kg and 5 to 8 mg/kg, respectively were applied. On the other hand, 100-150 IU/kg HCG were applied only as the 1st dose (Table 3). Fontenel (1955), Atz and Pickford (1959), Das and Khan (1962), Chaudhuri (1976), Mirza et al. (1993) and Alam and Bhuiyan (1999) adopted more or less similar practices for induced breeding in various fishes. It was found that fishes with correct dose of hormone injection, breed under artificial condition and gave good results. According to Ahmed (1945) PG influenced the spawning of Labeo rohita. In agreement with the present doses, Khan (1938), Alikunhi et al. (1960), Haque (1975), Chaudhuri (1977), Moitra and Sarker (1978), Khan et al. (1992), Mahanta et al. (1998) and Bhuiyan et al. (2008) and Bhuiyan and Aktar (2011) used more or less similar doses for induced spawning in common carps.

Table 3: Hormonal doses used in different brood fishes for induced breeding in the hatcheries of Rajshahi.
Table 3: Hormonal doses used in different brood fishes for induced breeding in the hatcheries of Rajshahi.

Incubation and hatching: The incubation period of different fish species varied from minimum 10 to maximum 72 hours. The hatching rate of fishes in the surveyed hatcheries ranged between 55% and 80% which is shown in Figure 2. These findings corroborate the observations of Alikunhi et al. (1964), Ali (1967) and Sing et al. (2000).

Figure 2: Hatching rates of eggs in different hatcheries under study
Figure 2:
Hatching rates of eggs in different hatcheries under study

Total cost, gross return and net profit:

Total cost: Fish fry production in the hatcheries is a profitable business in the surveyed area. The cost of production was the major determining factor for net earning in fish fry production. The total cost ranged from BDT 0.125 million to BDT 3.180 million with an average of BDT 0.667±0.798 million in the surveyed hatcheries in the year 2013 (Figure 3).

Gross return: Gross return depends on the production capacity, demand of fry, well management system and market price of fry. It was observed that, the gross return of the surveyed hatcheries ranged from BDT 0.184 million to BDT 6.360 million with an average of BDT 1.152±1.636 million in the year 2013 (Figure 3).

Net profit: It was observed that among the surveyed hatcheries, the net profit ranged from BDT 0.0575 million to BDT 3.18 million with an average BDT 0.485±0.846 million in the year 2013 (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Graph showing average total cost, gross return and net profit of the surveyed hatcheries (in million BDT)
Figure 3:
Graph showing average total cost, gross return and net profit of the surveyed hatcheries (in million BDT)

No previous study was found on the cost-benefit of hatchery operation in Bangladesh so it was not possible to compare the present findings with previous one. However, average benefit from the hatchery operation was found much more than carp culture in ponds in the study area, a study by Mohsin et al. (2012) reported 194,231.99±118,168.48 BDT/ha/yr benefit from grow out ponds of carps in Rajshahi area.
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Conclusion
  The production quantity of fish fry and profit of government hatcheries was less than the private hatcheries in pursuance of production capacity. To get the maximum quantity and high quality fry, the proper doses of hormone injection and use of quality brood fishes should be maintained. Emphasis should be given on expansion of hatchery facilities to supply high quality and quantity of fish fry required to support aquaculture development. More future works are necessary on different aspects of fish fry production. The government and NGOs should provide all modern facilities in connection with the quality fish fry production in Bangladesh.
[Top] [Table of contents]
Acknowledgements
  The authors are thankful and grateful to the hatchery owners, managers, fishery officers, staffs etc. for their kind help to supply data and information related to the hatcheries.
[Top] [Table of contents]
References
 

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Alam MM and Bhuiyan AS (1999) Determination of the optimum PG dose for induced spawning of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822). University Journal of Zoology Rajshahi University18: 103-108.

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Alikunhi KH, Sukumaran KK, Parameswaran S and Banerjee SC (1964) Preliminary observations on commercial breeding of Indian carps under controlled temperature in the laboratory. Bulletin of the Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore 3: 20.

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