Effect of treatments and washing cycles on the quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein concentrate

Lígia Boarin Alcalde, Ângela Dulce Cavenaghi-Altemio, Gustavo Graciano Fonseca


The extraction of proteins from wastes reduces production costs and environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two treatments involving decanting/sieving or centrifugation and the number of washing cycles on the quality of protein concentrate obtained from mechanically separated meat (MSM) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Results were analyzed in terms of final yield and proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat and ash) after each washing cycle. Moisture did not vary statistically with the treatments and after the third washing cycle. However, the process involving centrifugation was more efficient for protein concentration because the final protein content increased 2.0 folds (79.82%, dry basis) and fat decreased 6.1 folds (8.29%, dry basis). After four washing cycles, it was obtained a protein concentrate with 79.82% protein, 8.29% lipid and 0.45% ash (dry basis), and 80.0% yield, using the centrifugation procedure. Visual whiteness was highly improved after four washing cycles using both processes. It was concluded that the centrifugation process with four washing cycles was the most appropriate method for producing protein concentrate from MSM of Nile tilapia.


Fish residues; centrifugation; sieving; proximate composition; protein concentrate


AOAC (1995) Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. v. I e II. AOAC International.

Barreto PLM, and Beirão LH (1999) Influence of starch and carrageenan on textural properties on tilapia (Ore-ochomis sp.) surimi. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 19(2): 183–188. doi: 10.1590/S0101-20611999000200005

Bartolomeu DAFS, Waszczynskyj N, Kirschnik PG, Dallabona BR, da Costa FJOG and Leivas CL (2014) Storage of va-cuum-packaged smoked bologna sausage prepared from Nile tilapia. Acta Scientiarum Technology 36(3): 561–567. doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i3.18263

Cabral ISR, Angelini MFC, Shirahigue LD, Sucasas LFA and Oetterer M (2012) Stability of tilapia minced (Oreochromis niloticus) due to the use of different additives. Brazilian Journal of Food Research 3(1): 44–49. doi: 10.14685/rebrapa.v3i1

Cavenaghi-Altemio AD, Alcalde LB and Fonseca GG (2013) Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat. Food Science and Nutrition 1(6): 445–451. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.42

Cortez-Vega WR, Fonseca GG, Feisther VA, Flôres T and Prentice C (2013) Evaluation of frankfurters obtained from croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) surimi and mechanically deboned chicken meat surimi-like material. CyTA: Journal of Food 11(1): 27–36. doi: 10.1080/19476337.2012.680199

Cortez-Vega WR, Fonseca GG and Prentice C (2012) Comparisons of the properties of whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) surimi and mechanically deboned chicken meat surimi-like material. Food and Nutrition Sciences 3(11): 1480–1483. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.311192

Cortez-Vega WR, Fonseca GG and Prentice C (2015) Optimization of parameters for obtaining surimi-like material from mechanically separated chicken meat using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(2): 763–772. doi: 10.1007/s13197-013-1056-1

de Oliveira Filho PRC, Fávaro-Trindade CS, Trindade MA, Balieiro JCC and Viegas EMM (2010) Quality of sausage elaborated using minced Nile tilapia submitted to cold storage. Scientia Agricola 67(2): 183–190. doi: 10.1590/S0103-90162010000200009

Fogaça FHS, Trinca LA, Bombo AJ and Santana LS (2013) Optimization of the surimi production from mechanically recovered fish meat (MRFM) using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Quality 36(3): 209–216. doi: 10.1111/jfq.12019

Gryschek SFB, Oetterer M and Gallo CR (2003) Characterization and frozen storage stability of minced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Journal of Aquatic and Food Products Technology 12(3): 57–69. doi: 10.1300/J030v12n03_06

Kirschnik PG and Macedo-Viegas EM (2009) Effect of washing and increase of additives on minced stability of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during storage under -18 ºC. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 29(1): 200–206. doi: 10.1590/S0101-20612009000100031

Kirschnik PG, Trindade MA, Gomide CA, Moro MEG and Viegas EMM (2013) Storage stability of Nile tilapia meat mechanically separated, washed, added with preservatives and frozen. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 48(8): 938–942. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X2013000800018

Mello SCRP, de Freitas MQ, de São Clemente SC, Franco RM, Nogueira EB and Pinto MDSR (2010) Chemical and bacteriological characterization of minced fish and surimi obtained from fillet frames of tilapia. Ciência Rural 40(3): 648–653. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84782010005000029

Menegazzo ML, Petenuci ME and Fonseca GG (2014) Production and characterization of crude and refined oils obtained from the co-products of Nile tilapia and hybrid sorubim processing. Food Chemistry 157: 100–104. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.121

Nolsøe H, Imer S and Hultin HO (2007) Study of how phase separation by filtration instead of centrifugation affects protein yield and gel quality during an alkaline solubilisation process - different surimi-processing methods. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 42(2): 139–147. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01162.x

Park JW and Lin JTM (2004) Surimi: manufacturing and evaluation. In: Park JW, Surimi and surimi seafood 2nd ed. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis Group. Chapter 2, pp. 33–106.

Rawdkuen S, Sai-Ut S, Khamsorn S, Chaijan M and Benjakul S (2009) Biochemical and gelling properties of tilapia surimi and protein recovered using an acid-alkaline process. Food Chemistry 112(1): 112–119. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.047

Rebouças MC, Rodrigues MCP, de Castro RJS and Vieira JMM (2012) Characterization of fish protein concentrate obtained from the Nile tilapia filleting residues. Semina: Ciências Agrárias 33(2): 697–704. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2012v33n2p697

Sary C, Francisco JGP, Dallabona BR, de Macedo REF, Ganeco LN and Kirschnik PG (2009) Influence of washing tilapia minced on composition and acceptance of their products. Revista Acadêmica de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais 7(4): 423–432.

Vidal JMA, Rodrigues MCP, Zapata JFF and Vieira JMM (2011) Protein concentrate from the residues left after filleting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): physical-chemical characterization and sensory acceptance. Revista Ciência Agronômica 42(1): 92–99. doi: 10.1590/S1806-66902011000100012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17017/jfish.v5i2.2017.154


  • There are currently no refbacks.

| Intellectual property: The Author(s) | Publication property: BdFISH | All contents of this site are protected under CC BY-NC-SA license. |
| The opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of BdFISH. |

| Editor-in-Chief: Professor MN Islam | Executive Editor: Shams Galib | Editorial Team | Principal Contact |

BdFISH Journal: The Scientific Publication of BdFISH, Department of Fisheries, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Developed by BdFISH Workshop and Powered by OJS