Evaluation of fermented African mesquite seed (Prosopis africana) on growth and nutrient digestibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings

  • Shina Al-Habeeb Aroyehun Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0010-470X
  • Wilfred Olusegun Alegbeleye Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3944-8382
  • Olubunmi Temilade Agbebi Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Abiodun Akinde Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1753-655X
Keywords: Economic efficiency, leguminous plants, Nile tilapia, proximate analysis


Production of cheap and quality dietary protein to replace the expensive conventional protein was studied in an 84-day feeding trial of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. African mesquite (Prosopis africana) seeds were subjected to fermentation processes and four iso-nitrogenous diets (35% crude protein) were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented African mesquite seed meal (FMS) to replace soybean meal (SBM) at four inclusion levels (0%, 15%, 30% and 45%) replicated in a completely randomised design. Proximate analysis showed increased in crude protein (35.10% to 41.29%), amino acids concentration, minerals content (calcium and phosphorus) while there were reductions in crude fibre (7.79% to 2.13%), crude lipids (4.02% to 2.67%) and anti-nutritional factors of FMS. The highest protein digestibility of 83.35% was recorded in FMS30 while FMS15 showed the least (77.07%). Carcass compositions were affected by diets composition. The minimum feeding cost of US$ 0.88 kg−1 was registered in FMS45 while FMS15 recorded the highest value of US$ 1.37 kg−1. In conclusion, 45% of FMS could replace SBM without compromising growth performance of Nile tilapia.


Alegbeleye WO, Obasa SO, Olude, OO, Moronkeji T, Ab-dulraheem I (2012) Growth performance and nutri-ent utilization of African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings fed different levels of fer-mented Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) meal. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh 64: 1–8.

Annongu AA, Ter Meulen U (2000) Chemical and nutri-tional evaluation of dietary processed and unpro-cessed Prosopis africana seed meal with pullet chicks. Archiv fur Geflugelkunde 65: 28–32.

AOAC (2005) Animal feed. Official methods of analysis, 18th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chem-ists, USA. pp. 25–26.

Ari MM, Ayanwale BA, Adama TZ, Olatunji EA (2012) Eval-uation of chemical and anti-nutritional factors of (ANFs) levels of different thermally processed soy-beans. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 6: 91–98.

Balogun MA, Oyeyiola GP (2012) Changes in the nutrient composition of Okpehe during fermentation. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11: 270–275.

Benitez LV (1989) Amino acid and fatty acid profiles in aquaculture nutrition studies. Fish Nutrition Re-search in Asia. In: De Silva SS (Ed) 3rd proceedings of the Asian Fish Nutrition Network Meeting, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines. pp. 23–35.

Carmona A (1996) Tannins: thermostable pigments which complex dietary proteins and inhibit digestive en-zymes. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 44: 31S–35S.

De-Reu JC, Ramdaras D, Rombonts FM, Nout MJR (1994) Changes in soya bean lipids during tempe-fermentation. Food Chemistry 50: 171–175.

Dernekba S, KarayuCel I (2017) Partial replacement of Soybean meal by peanut and sesame seed meals in practical diets for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Aquaculture & Marine Biology 6(1): 146.

El-Sayed AFM (2014) Project report: value chain analysis of the Egyptian aquaculture feed industry. World-Fish, Penang, Malaysia. pp. 22–42.

El-Tawil N, Ali S, El-Mesallamy A (2020) Effect of using taro leaves as a partial substitute of soybean meal in diets on growth performance and feed efficiency of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries 24(7): 383–396.

FAO (2017) Social and economic performance of tilapia farming in Africa. Edited by Cai J, Quagrainie KK and Hishamunda N. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Cir-cular No. 1130. Rome, Italy.

Frimpong EA, Anane-Taabeah G (2017) Social and eco-nomic performance of tilapia farming in Ghana. In: Cai J, Quagrainie KK, Hishamunda N (Eds) Social and economic performance of tilapia farming in Africa. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1130, Italy. pp. 49–90.

Furukawa A, Tsukahara H (1966) On the acid digestion method for the determination of chromic oxide as the index substance in the study of digestibility of fish diet. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 32: 502–506.

Graham HD (1992) Stabilization of the Prussian blue colour in the determination of polyphenols. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 40: 801–805.

Igbabul BD, Amove J, Twadue I (2014) Effect of fermenta-tion on the proximate composition, antinutritional factors and functional properties of cocoyam (Colo-casia esculenta) flour. African Journal of Food Sci-ence and Technology 5: 67–74.

Imorou Toko I, Fiogbe ED, Kestemont P (2007) Growth, feed efficiency and body mineral composition of ju-venile vundu catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis, Va-lenciennes 1840) in relation to various dietary levels of soybean or cottonseed meals. Aquaculture Nutri-tion 13: 1–11.

Martínez-Llorens S, Moñino AV, Tomás Vidal A, Salvador VJM, Pla Torres M, Jover Cerdá M (2007) Soybean meal as a protein source in gilthead sea bream (Spa-rus aurata L.) diets: effects on growth and nutrient utilization. Aquaculture Research 38: 82–90

Mohsin ABM, Islam MN, Hossain MA, Galib SM (2012) Cost-benefit analyses of carp polyculture in ponds: a survey study in Rajshahi and Natore districts of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Environmental Science 23: 103–107.

Moutinho S, Martínez-Llorens S, Tomás-Vidal A, Jover-Cerdá M, Oliva-Teles A, Peres H (2017) Meat and bone meal as partial replacement for fish meal in di-ets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles: growth, feed efficiency, amino acid utilization, and economic efficiency. Aquaculture 468: 271–277.

New MB (1987) Feed and feeding of fish and shrimp. A manual on the preparation and presentation of compound feeds for shrimps and fish in aquaculture. UNDP/FAO/ADCP/REP/87/26, Rome/Italy.

Ogunshe AAO, Omotosho MO, Ayanshina ADV (2007) Microbial studies and biochemical characteristics of controlled fermented Afiyo-a Nigerian fermented food condiment from Prosopis africana (Guill and Perr.) Taub. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6: 620–627.

Okomoda VT, Tiamiyu LO, Uma SG (2016) Effects of hy-drothermal processing on nutritional value of Ca-navalia ensiformis and its utilization by Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings. Aquaculture Reports 3: 214–219.

Olude O, George F, Alegbeleye W (2016) Utilization of autoclaved and fermented sesame (Sesamum indi-cum L.) seed meal in diets for Til-aqua natural male tilapia. Animal Nutrition 2: 339–344.

Refstie S, Sahlstrom S, Brathen E, Baeverfjord G, Krogedal P (2005) Lactic acid fermentation eliminates indi-gestible carbohydrates and antinutritional factors in soybean meal for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aq-uaculture 246: 331–345.

Richter N, Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2003). Evaluation of nutritional quality of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture 217: 599–611.

Storebakken T, Refstie S, Ruyter B (2000) Soy products as fat and protein sources in fish feeds for intensive aquaculture. In: Drackley JK (Ed) Soy in animal nutri-tion. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Cham-paign. pp. 127–170.

Wheeler EL, Ferrel RE (1971) A method for phytic acid determination in wheat and wheat fractions. Ameri-can Association of Cereal Chemists 48: 312–320.

Xie M, Xie Y, Li Y, Zhou W, Zhang Z, ... Zhou Z (2021) The effects of fish meal replacement with ultra-micro ground mixed plant proteins (uPP) in practical diet on growth, gut and liver health of common carp (Cy-prinus carpio). Aquaculture Reports 19: 100558.

Yousif SMM (2003) Comparison between the effects of mesquite (Prosopis sp. L.) manure and NPK fertilizer on fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) in sandy soil potting mixtures. MSc thesis, University of Khartoum. p. 23.

Yue YR, Zhou, QC (2008) Effect of replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal on growth, feed utilisation, and hematological indexes for juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. Aureus. Aquaculture 284: 185–189.

Yusuf ND, Ogah DM, Hassan DI, Musa MM, Doma UD (2008) Effect of decorticated fermented Prosopis seed meal (Prosopis africana) on growth perfor-mance of broiler chicken. International Journal of Poultry Science 7: 1054–1057.

How to Cite
Aroyehun, S. A.-H., Alegbeleye, W. O., Agbebi, O. T., & Akinde , A. (2021). Evaluation of fermented African mesquite seed (Prosopis africana) on growth and nutrient digestibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Journal of Fisheries, 9(2), 92202. https://doi.org/10.17017/j.fish.277