Relationship between cortisol and glucose as physiological stress indicators during growth season in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii
The relationship between cortisol and glucose was studied in two-year old farmed Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii with a body weight of 340±30 g (mean ± SD) and total length of 45±1 cm from August to November 2017. Thirty-six individuals were randomly selected and stocked in some 3×300 L fiberglass tanks. Blood samples were collected monthly from the tagged fish. The mean cortisol in August, September, October and November were 4.7±0.9, 23.5±3.0, 6.3±0.9 and 7.4±0.9 ng mL–1 respectively whereas glucose concentrations were 44.6±0.4, 27.3±0.6, 49.2±0.7 and 48.5±0.7 mg dL–1 respectively indicating a significant increase in cortisol and decrease in glucose in September, may be due to the exposure to prolonged high temperature (26–28.5°C). Although it was expected to happen naturally due to hyperglycemia of cortisol but no such phenomena was detected. Our results suggest that the consumption of glucose for maintenance of homeostasis and physiological status is a mechanism against the non-optimal thermal regime. This mechanism consumes glucose at a rate higher than that produced by cortisol, causing significant decrease of plasma glucose. In general, there was a reverse relationship between cortisol and glucose concentration during the experiment in Siberian sturgeons.
Abdali H, Eagderi S (2015) Ontogeny of gill structure in Sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus (Linnaeus, 1758). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 2(2): 87–92.
Barton BA, Rahn AB, Feist G, Bollig H, Schreck CB (1998) Physiological stress responses of the freshwater chondrostean paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) to acute physical disturbances. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology, Part A 120: 355–363.
Barton BA, Schreck CB, Barton LD (1987) Effects of chronic cortisol administration and daily acute stress on growth physiological conditions, and stress responses in juvenile rainbow trout. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 2: 173–185.
Barton BA, Schreck CB, Fowler LG. (1988) Fasting and diet content affect stress-nduced changes in plasma glucose and cortisol in juvenile Chinook salmon. The Progressive Fish Culturist 50: 16–22.
Cataldi E, Di Marco P, Mandich A, Cataudella S (1998) Serum parameters of Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii (Pisces: Acipenseriformes): effects of temperature and stress. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology, Part A 121: 351–354.
Eagderi S, Poorbagher H, Moshayedi F, Hosseini SV (2017) Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae) during early development. International Journal of Aquatic Biology 5(3): 201–207.
FAO (2019) Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Acipenser baerii (Brandt, 1869). www.fao.org, accessed on 25 December 2019.
Ghomi MR, Nazari RM, Poorbagher H, Sohrabnejad M, Jamalzadeh HR, Ovissipour M, Molla AE, Zarei M (2011) Effect of photoperiod on blood parameters of young beluga sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758). Comparative Clinical Pathology 20: 647–651.
Gisbert E, Asgari R, Rafiee G, Agh N, S Eagderi S, Eshaghzadeh H, Alcaraz C (2014) Early development and allometric growth patterns of beluga Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 30(6): 1264–1272.
Hamlin HJ (2006) Nitrate toxicity in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Aquaculture 253: 688–693.
Hamlin HJ, Edwards TM, Moore B, Kevan L, Main KL, Guillette Jr LG (2007) Stress and its relation to endocrine function in captive female Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). Environmental Sciences 14(3): 129–139.
Hasanalipour A, Eagderi S, Poorbagher H, Bahmani M (2013) Effects of stocking density on blood cortisol, glucose and cholesterol levels of immature Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 13: 1–6.
Hasanpour H, Eagderi S, Pourbagher H, Farahmand H, Bahrami-Ziarani M (2015) Body shape changes of hatchery-reared triploid sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) x (Huso huso) during early development using geometric morphometric technique. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation 8(3): 398–403.
Holcik J (1989) The freshwater fishes of Europe. Aulaverlag Wiesbaden. pp. 227-262.
Holcik J (1989) The freshwater fishes of Europe. Aulaverlag Wiesbaden 1: 227–262.
Jodun WA, Millard MJ, Mohler J (2002) The effect of rearing density on growth, survival, and feed conversion of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. North American Journal of Aquaculture 64: 10–15.
Koksal G, Rad F, Kindir M (2000) Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) juvenile reared in concrete raceways. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science 24: 435–442.
Kottelat M, Freyhof J (2007) Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat. Cornol, Switzerland.
Lankford SE, Adams TE, Cech JJ (2003) Time of day and water temperature modify the physiological stress response in green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology, Part A 135: 291–302.
Marino G, Di Marco P, Mandich A, Finoia MG, Cataudella S (2001) Changes in serum cortisol, metabolites, osmotic pressure and electrolytes in response to different blood sampling procedures in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 17: 115–120.
Martinez D, Greene K, Broft A, Kumar D, Liu F, Narendran R, Slifstein M, Van Heertum R, Kleber HD (2009) Lower level of endogenous dopamine in patients with cocaine dependence: findings from PET imaging of D2/D3 receptors following acute dopamine depletion. American Journal of Psychiatry 166: 1170–1177.
Martinez-Alvarez RM, Hidalgo MC, Domezain A, Morales AE, Garcia-Gallego M, Sanz A (2002) Physiological changes of sturgeon Acipenser naccarii caused by increasing environmental salinity. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 3699–3706.
Maxime V, Nonnotte G, Peyraud C, Williot P, Truchot JP (1995) Circulatory and respiratory effects of a hypoxic stress in the Siberian sturgeon. Respiration Physiology 100: 203–212.
Mommsen TP, Vijayan MM, Moon TW (1999) Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 9: 211–268.
Papoutsoglou SE, Karakatsouli N, Louizos E, Chadio S, Kalogiannis D, Dalla C, Polissidis A, Papadopoulou-Daifoti Z (2007) Effect of Mozart's music (Romanze-Andante of "Eine Kleine Nacht Musik", sol major, K525) stimulus on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) physiology under different light conditions. Aquaculture Engineering 36: 61–72.
Rotllant J, Balm PHM, Perez-Sanchez J, Wendelaar-Bonga SE, Tort L (2001) Pituitary and interregnal function in Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L., Teleostei) after handling and confinement stress. General and Comparative Endocrinology 121: 333–342.
Ruban G (2005) The Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii Brandt (Species structure and ecology). GEOS publisher, Moscow.
Trenzado CE, Carrick TR, Pottinger TG (2003) Divergence of endocrine and metabolic responses to stress in two rainbow trout lines selected for differing cortisol responsiveness to stress. General and Comparative Endocrinology 133: 332–340.
UNEP, WCMC (2010) Review of four sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea basin. United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation Monitoring Centre. A report to the European Commission. 83 pp.
Vijayan MM, Pereira C, Moon TW (1994) Hormonal stimulation of hepatocyte metabolism in rainbow trout following an acute handling stress. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology 108C: 321–329.
Weil LS, Barry TP, Malison JA (2001) Fast growth in rainbow trout is correlated with a rapid decrease in post-stress cortisol concentrations. Aquaculture 193: 373–380.
Williot P, Comte S, Le Menn F (2011) Stress indicators throughout the reproduction of farmed Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (Brandt) females. International Aquatic Research 3: 31–43.
Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Fisheries
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.